High Tech Internet
Cellular Internet and Smart Mobile Phones |
HotSpot wireless Internet |
Satellite internet from anywhere
One of most exciting new technologies today is
Wireless Internet Service. Wireless technology is playing an increasing role in
the lives of people around the world. Many people use Internet services from
cell phones, PDAs, Pocket PCs, or
laptops. This became the convenient and fast way to communicate in each
occupation: from doctors and policemen to salespeople and businessmen. They use the Wide World Web everyday at offices, at home and on the move,
and can not work and live normally without it.
Wireless technology uses as a medium of communication the radio waves, that operate in the 3 KHz
to 300 GHz range. For comparison, the AM radio band operate in 1 MHz diapason,
the FM radio band operate in diapason of 100 MHz , and the GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) band
operates in the diapason 1.5 GHz.
3rd Generation Wireless, or 3G, is the term used for the next generation
of wireless or mobile communications systems. 3G systems aim to provide enhanced
voice, text and data services to each user. The third generation networks
supports real-time video, high-speed multimedia and mobile Internet
A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access,
for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other
mobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP
telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D
Now you can use your voice to use your iPhone. Just talk to Siri as you would to
a person: “Do I need an umbrella?” or “Any great burgers around here?” or
“Where’s the closest ATM?” Siri not only understands what you say, it knows what
you mean. It figures out the right apps to use to find the right answer. Then,
just like a personal assistant, it answers you. Siri makes phone calls, sends
messages, schedules meetings, sets reminders, and more. How much more? Just ask,
and Siri tells you that, too.
Below we describe some variety of technologies of modern Wireless
Internet mentioning main corresponding Connection standards or protocols.
Cellular Internet service is based on a cellular architecture that consists of a
“backbone” network with fixed “base stations”, interconnected through the
wired public switched telephone network
(PSTN). The geographic areas within which mobile units (cell phones) can
communicate with a particular base station are called “cells.” Adjacent
cells overlap each other, thus ensuring continuity of communications when
users move from one cell to another cell. The user’s mobile units
communicate with each other, as well as with other networks, through the
base stations, and the backbone network. A set of radio frequency channels
is allocated to each base station. Neighboring cells must use different
channels, in order to avoid unacceptable interference.
Developed according to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP), the Global System for Mobile TeleCommunications (GSM) is the most
popular standard for mobile phones in the world. This project is a
co-operation between ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS
(North America) and TTA (South Korea). The International Telecommunications
Union defined the third generation of mobile telephony standards, known as
IMT-2000. The standards based on these projects make it possible to use the
same phone with a different company’s service, or even while traveling in a
different country. Another advantage is that the standard includes one
worldwide Emergency telephone number, 112. This makes it easier for
international travelers to connect to emergency services without knowing the
local emergency number. For these standards, both the signaling and speech
channels are digital. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a
packet-oriented mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones.
GPRS was invented with the idea that cell phones can also
be computers, e-mail and Web browsers, and even TV receivers.
Generally, the cellular network is composed of the
Base station transceivers (BST), which are
transmitter/receivers used to transmit and receive radio signals
Mobile switching centers (MSC), which set up and maintain
calls made over the network.
Base station controllers, which control communication
between a group of BSTs, and a single MSC
Public switches telephone network (PSTN), which is the
land-based section of the network
Any geographic region is divided up into cells. Each cell
has a BST that transmits data via a radio link to a mobile station (MS)
within the cell. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open
international standard for Internet access from very small portable devices,
such as PDA’s and mobile phones. WAP allows users to send and receive
emails, get the latest stock exchange indexes, receive sports results, and
keep up with the latest news headlines.
Wi-Fi is the trademark name for a popular wireless
networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed
Internet and network connections.
Wireless Internet services are needed predominantly in
rural environments, where cable and digital subscriber lines are not
available. Wireless Internet services (WIS) are provided by many companies,
including Sprint Nextel Corporation (www.sprint.com), Verizon Wireless
Corporation (www.verizonwireless.com), and AT&T Corporation (www.att.com).
Nearly every laptop sold today has a wireless modem
factory-installed in it, and there are also many new handheld devices that
are set up for remote Internet access.
During the last decade, we saw a trend toward evolving the
typical mobile phone with one function (a voice conversation), into a
multi-functional smart phone. The latter has advanced capabilities, often
with PC-like functionality, e-mail and Internet capabilities, games, a photo
camera and a music player. The smart phone
might include a miniature QWERTY keyboard, a touch screen, media software
for playing music, browsing photos and viewing video clips, or have the
ability to read business documents in a variety of formats such as PDF and
Microsoft Office. Some companies also embed a GPS module to search the
nearest hotel, shop, or other service, in their mobile phones.
There are many places everywhere, from airports and hotels to coffee shops,
Internet cafes and restaurants, where customers enjoy wireless high-speed
Internet access. These locations are called “hot spots”. Many of them charge a
daily or hourly rate for access, but some are free. Many cities offer free
wireless hot spots (“free spots”) to attract visitors, while many businesses are
pursuing wireless in a variety of ways. An interconnected area of hot spots and
network access points is known as a “hot zone”. Several websites offer
searchable listings of free and paid public Wi-Fi hot spots, for example,
Hot spots and free spots use WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) standards. The
most common standard is IEEE 802.11b (also called “Wi-Fi”).
A public wireless hot spot is an area where a computer or PDA, equipped with a
WLAN module, can connect to the Internet through Wireless Access Points. A
single access point can be reached from a distance of no more than 100-200
meters (300-600 ft.), but hot spots consisting of hundreds of access points also
exist, which, for example, might cover an entire airport.
Existing providers of hot spot systems include
HotSpotSystem, and Netopia, Inc.,
Some hot spots are equipped with
which allow users without mobile devices to reach the Internet as easily as they
would use a pay phone or an ATM. Usually, customers have the choice of either
accessing the Internet on the PayKiosk terminal, or using the wireless signal
transmitted from the terminal to connect their own laptop or PDA.
Satellite communications are used in rescue operations, the maritime industry,
oil, gas and mining industries, transportation and travel, and the military, to
name a few. Today, this type of communication ensures better quality than
traditional radio systems.
To receive satellite service, the user needs an
antenna with a transmitter aimed at the correct satellite, along with a very
specialized modem connected to his computer. A two-way satellite Internet
sends data from remote sites via satellite to a hub, which then sends the data
to the Internet. With Satellite Internet , it is possible to surf the worldwide web, send and receive e-mail, and
anything else that can be done with a dial-up connection, cable or DSL
connection, or wireless connection.
Satellite Internet uses advanced encryption technology
to handle sensitive data and protect the user’s privacy, making the
satellite connection secure and safe from hackers. Two-way satellite Internet
usually consists of:
Approximately a two-foot by three-foot elliptical satellite dish
Two modems (uplink and downlink)
Coaxial cables between dish and modem
dish antenna gets mounted on an exterior wall, balcony, roof, or any other
location in near proximity to the home, which is connected by coaxial cable to a
satellite modem. It may be mounted also on a truck, van, railroad car, or
The television and internet satellites are all in geosynchronous orbit around
the Earth, meaning that they stay in one place in the sky relative to the Earth.
Each satellite is launched into space at about 7,000 mph (11,000 kph), reaching
approximately 22,200 miles (35,700 km) above the Earth. At this speed and
altitude, the satellite will perfectly follow the full rotation of the Earth in
each and every 24-hour period. Satellite system providers can use a
constellation of satellites. For example,
Iridium Communications Inc. uses a constellation of sixty-six
low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellites operated by Boeing Corporation. Satellite
services for users in the U.S. are provided from satellite transponders owned by
SES , Iridium
Communications Inc., Telesat ,
SAT1USA, and others.
Inmarsat was the world’s first global mobile satellite communications operator,
and is still the only one to offer a mature range of modern communications
services to maritime, land-mobile, aeronautical, and other users.
Today’s Inmarsat system is used by independent service providers, to offer a
range of voice and multimedia communications. Inmarsat’s business strategy is to
pursue a variety of new opportunities, as information technology, telecom, and
mobility technologies converge.
In 2005, the new Inmarsat I-4 satellite system first went into orbit.
This system allows TV broadcasters to beam breaking news via videophones into
millions of homes.
Mobil Satellite Technologies has
developed two types of mobile satellite Internet, TV and phone systems. The
first is “stationary-automatic”, for units that work when the vehicle or vessel
is stopped, and the other is “in-motion”, for units that work while the
vehicle or vessel is moving.
Modern wireless communication service providers use a combination of all types
of wireless Internet.
For more information see
Intelligence Around Us".