Artificial Intelligence and expert systems
and Expert Systems | Categories
of expert systems ....
Decision Engine from Invention Machine
Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems -
Intelligence (AI) is a branch of
computer science, which focuses on the development of computer systems to
simulate the processes of problem solving and duplicate human
brain functions. Expert systems (ES) are a category of programs based on
the theory and methods of artificial intelligence.
The first expert systems appeared in the late sixties.
Today, they exist in many
forms, from medical diagnosis to investment analysis and from counseling
to production control. Due to the advances of the last decade, today's
expert systems users can choose from dozens of commercial software packages. At
present, we accept as routine such expert systems as weather forecasting, online mapping and driving
directions, diagnostic systems for automotive repair shops, and so on.
corporations use expert systems in their business. The list of the companies using expert systems
technology is long and varied: NASA, HP, Lockheed, Boing,
DaimlerChrysler AG, various power, gas and oil stations, etc.
tend to be more effective than other computer based applications, because they:
may combine the
knowledge of many experts in a specific field,
an unlimited amount of information, and works much faster, than a
are available 24 hours a day,
and can be used at a distance over a network,
are able to explain their information
requests and suggestions,
client's uncertain responses and, by combining several pieces of uncertain
information, may still be able to make strong recommendations,
the knowledge of high level employees for any company, which is especially
useful when the company needs to fire them due to worsened
Many applications are not covered here, and some manufacturers and resellers
belong in multiple categories. Due to the space limitations,
manufacturers are included in only one category.
systems in this category interpret information from sensors to describe a
situation. For example, this might be the interpretation of process measuring
information in a chemical plant. Interpretative ES deals with real data.
Therefore, these ES must not only retrieve, but also analyze, filter and restore
missed data, as well as mine data, transform data to another format, and so on.
Interpretative expert systems can handle various types of data, such as data for
the recognition of voice, visual, smell, touch or gestures.
Examples within this category of ES include:
• Netrics Data
Quality Software, from Netrics, Inc.,
which enables cleansing of data for mission-critical and business-critical
operations. The Netrics line of products may deliver a near-perfect accuracy
of data, for “dirty” or error-prone data. Netrics develops tools which allow
matching imperfect data in real-time, despite inconsistencies, incompleteness,
variations and errors.
• Nuggets and eNuggets toolkits, from Data
Mining Technologies, Inc., are desktop applications, which build models to
uncover hidden facts and relationships for industries such as healthcare,
biotechnology, and telecommunications. These tools can predict new data and
trends, and reveal which variables make decisions with the most impact.
Abnormal Condition Recognition
Expert systems perform abnormal condition recognition (ACR) or, in other words,
diagnosis of the condition of an object or process using a description of the
situation, knowledge of the architecture (structure and functions) of the
subject, and other methods, to establish the probable causes of incorrect
These expert systems
oftentimes serve as consultants, who not only make the diagnosis, but also help
with debugging. ACR can assess the technical condition of a complex industrial
system, or the health condition of a human . The technical diagnostic type of
expert system is combining artificial intelligence techniques with equipment
fault diagnosis techniques. It uses special knowledge and a method provided by
experts which simulates the inference process of the experts, to solve various
complicated and important problems.
MatheMedics Inc. has developed medical diagnostic programs for the back,
chest, abdomen, and other sign/symptom domains, and has considerable
experience with the creation of efficient medical expert and decision support
Gensym Corporation has developed the G2 platform and new products, NeurOn-Line,
Optegrity, and e-SCOR, which enable real-time expert system applications.
Transformer Oil Analyst (TOA), developed by
Delta-X Research, warns the staff of
any suspicious symptoms or trends. Whenever an equipment or insulating fluid
problem is suspected, TOA enables the user to quickly review both the historic
(previous) and current status.
Automated System of Technical Diagnostics (SASTD) was created by Intellectual
Systems, Inc. in Russia, while the author was founder and President of this
company. SASTD is real-time hybrid ES for a pipe line gas compressor station.
ES for Prediction and Forecast
The prediction and forecast category of ES enables the forecasting of possible
outcomes of observable situations. Examples may include the prediction of crop
damage from harmful insects, estimation of the demand for oil in the global
market place, or prediction of the next armed conflict. Also included in this
category are weather forecasting, scoring and predictive modeling, risk
management and other financial forecasting, to name a few. Examples of products
in this category are:
• NeuralWorks Predict, developed by
Neuralware Inc., is an integrated tool
for rapidly creating and deploying prediction and classification applications.
This system is based on neural network technology, combined with genetic
algorithms, statistics, and fuzzy logic, to automatically find optimal or
near-optimal solutions for a wide range of problems.
• NeuroXL Predictor, developed by NeuroXL
Inc., is a neural network forecasting tool that quickly and accurately
solves forecasting and estimation problems for a wide variety of tasks,
including stock price prediction, sales forecasting, and sports score
• Forecasting Software developed by the
Vanguard Corporation, combines different decision support methods to find
the best forecast for the needs of an individual or entire organization.
ES for Design
and Management Solutions
After considering a great number of variable parameters for solving innovation
tasks, ES can assist in the optimization of design, and find the best management
Usually such expert systems are
important parts of CAD/CAE/SIM systems.
In this category are such products as the Goldfire complex of tools, developed
by Invention Machine. These
Goldfire tools provide:
• Innovation Trend Analysis
• Process Analysis
• Root Cause Analysis
ES for Control
These categories exist as the portion of control systems that help to monitor
operations, and to control certain functions of the machinery in various types
of enterprises. Many corporations that have developed Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) have used expert systems for different control
levels of industrial plants. For example,
Emerson Process Management, Inc. is
developing the following products:
• The DeltaV Advanced Control Suite,
which includes simulation and optimization subsystems
• The Ovation expert control system, which gives users higher levels of plant
availability, reliability and environmental compliance
• WDPF control systems, which integrate plant process control, local and wide
area SCADA systems, PLC networks, maintenance management, and so on.
company, Knowledge Process Solutions Inc.,
has developed an intelligent plant technology (IntelliPlant) that includes
model-based multivariate control and optimization subsystems for minimizing
costs. The control and optimization technology includes the ability to develop
statistical models of equipment behavior, based on data mining technology.
These technologies have a low cost with fast implementation speed.
ES for Analysis and Reporting
There are a several popular applications on the American market:
• The Analysis, DSS and Reporting
Suites, developed by MicroStrategy Inc.,
are Business Intelligence applications for integrating, reporting, analysis,
and information delivery abilities in one platform
• PowerCenter and Informatica Platform, from
Informatica Corporation, is designed
for mass deployment and adoption of business analytics
company, Expert Solutions International,
produces the expert system, Logist, which enables organizations to rapidly
create robust applications, well-integrated with their business activities,
while achieving the following goals:
• Preserve the organization’s hidden
knowledge assets, in the form of business rules
• Create dynamic applications that can adapt to market speed, thereby
sharpening the organization’s competitive advantage
• Simplify knowledge sharing within the organization
• Empower the business with knowledge
• Lower implementation and assimilation costs
Manufacturing is one of most robust areas of expert systems and AI-related
activities. It is very difficult to find statistical data about the
implementation of these systems in the various industries of developed countries
of the world. However, it is possible to make some extrapolation. According to a
1994 study involving ninety-eight Fortune 500 industrial companies, expert
systems were utilized in manufacturing by 52% of the companies, where ES was
perceived to be very useful in process planning, product design, layout,
facility design and maintenance. Undoubtedly, there are now more than 52% of
solid companies using expert systems.
Manufacturing ES is a part of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) or
Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS). Manufacturing ES may be applied to
almost any manufacturing area, including planning, design and system
configuration, process control, quality control, and so on.
One popular product on the market is G2 e-SCOR, developed by
Gensym Corporation. The G2 e-SCOR product
enables the simulation of various configurations, tests the robustness of the
supply chain, and identifies the required service levels. This product can help
identify the weak links and areas for improvement in the supply chain, thereby
saving time and money.
Marketing and Trade Management
key use of artificial intelligence in marketing and trade management ES is to
determine marketing potential and business opportunities.
The Ward Systems Group, Inc. puts out AI Trilogy, a new package of
business and scientific software. AI Trilogy contains the NeuroShell
Predictor, NeuroShell Classifier, and GeneHunter software together in one
Data Mining Technologies Inc. provides
several types of modeling services for developing marketing and trade management
• Prospect segmentation modeling
• Customer segmentation modeling
• Customer cloning
• Prospecting for new customers
• Finding high-value new customers
• Maximizing return from loyalty
MarketResearch.com is the world’s largest and continuously-updated collection
of market research, with more than 200,000 reports from over 650 leading
global publishers. Much of this was accomplished with the help of ES.
ES for E-Learning
E-Learning Systems (ELS) is based on special tools, and supplies individual or
group education and training for different disciplines. These learning tools and
services make the learning process faster and more adaptive to the challenges of
the business world. ELS can include Learning Management Systems and Course
Management Systems. Following are some developers and providers of e-Learning
GeoLearning, Inc. is a leading
developer of e-learning delivery platforms and web-based training solutions
for organizations around the world, including Fortune 1000 companies,
government agencies, and so on.
CompanyCollege.com is the
e-learning solution from Business Training Library Inc., the provider of
affordable training solutions for small companies; this company offers easy to
use, completely customizable online learning to the Business Services,
Financial Services, and Healthcare fields, among others.
For more information see the book